Here are the summarized revision notes for A Level Computer Science 9618, P1. The notes are totally up to date according to the new syllabus of 9618. The notes are contributed by Mr. Muhammad Ali Khan (MAK). Get full access of notes from here
A binary shift involves moving the bits stored in a register of a given number of places. Each bit can be used to multiple purposes, let’s take an example, in the IR each bit identifies a different interrupt.
There are several types of Shifts:
- Logical Shift
- Arithmetic Shift
- Cyclic Shift
- Left Shift
- Right Shift
Digital rights management (DRM) – is used to control the access to copyright material. Free Software Foundation – organization promoting the free distribution of software, giving users the freedom to run, copy, change or adapt the coding as needed.
Open Source Initiative – organization offering the same freedoms as the Free Software Foundation, but with more of a focus on the practical consequences of the four shared rules, such as more collaborative software development.
Freeware is software which can be downloaded for free; usual copyright laws and cannot be modified; nor can the code be used for another purpose. Shareware – software that is free of charge initially (free trial period). The full version of the software can only be downloaded once the full fee for the software has been paid.
Data management – the organization and maintenance of data in a database to provide the information required.
Data dictionary – a set of data that contains metadata (data about other data) for a database. Data modelling – the analysis and definition of the data structures required in a database and to produce a data model.
Developer interface – feature of a DBMS that provides developers with the commands required for definition, creation and manipulation of a database.
Security measures taken by a DBMS are as follows:
- Using usernames and passwords to prevent unauthorized access to the database using access rights to manage the parts of the database they have access to, for example, the provisions of different views of the data for different users to allow only certain users access to some tables
- Automatic creation and scheduling of regular back-ups
- Encryption of the data stored
What is AI?
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a machine or application which completes an undertaking that requires some level of insight when done by a person. These tasks could include
- The use of a language
- Carrying out a mathematical calculation or function recognizing
- A person’s face
- The ability to operate machinery, such as a car, an aero plane or a train
- Analyzing data to predict the outcome of a future event, such as weather forecasting.
The impact of AI
Numerous films and books fuel this association.
- A robot must obey orders given by humans without question.
- A robot may not hurt a human by its actions.
- A robot may protect itself from above two laws. However, AI goes way beyond robotics.