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__M____EASUREMENT____T____ECHNIQUES____:__

__Systematic Error:__A constant or consistent error in measurement which may be attributed to a fault in the instrument or a consistent flaw in the measuring technique, and which cannot be eliminated by averaging.__Random Error:__An error of variable magnitude in which the readings are scattered about the true value. This type of error is due to limitations on the part of the observer or an inconsistency in measuring equipment. It can be eliminated by averaging__Precision:__The degree of refinement with which an operation is performed or a measurement is stated. It relates to how close measurements are to their mean value.__Accuracy:__The degree of conformity of a measure to a standard or a true

__P____HYSICAL____Q____UANTITIES____& U____NITS____:__

__Principle of Homogeneity__: states that in a homogenous equation, every expression, on either side of the equation, has the same__Homogenous Equation:__An equation in which the base units of all quantities added or subtracted is the same on either side of the__Physical Quantity__: A quantity that has dimension and can be measured.__Scalar Quantity__: A quantity in which only the magnitude is of significance and does not possess directional__Vector Quantity:__A quantity possessing both a magnitude and__Base Unit:__The units for the seven basic physical The following are the seven basic quantities with their respective units:

__Basic SI Units__

Properties |
Units |

Mass | kg [Kilogram] |

Length | m [Meter] |

Time | s [Second |

Electric Current | A [Ampere] |

Temperature | K [Kelvin] |

Intensity of Light | Cd [Candela] |

Amount of | mol [Mole] |

__Prefixes__

Prefix Symbol |
Prefix Name |
Value |

P | Peta | |

T | Tera | |

G | Giga | |

M | Mega | |

k | Kilo | |

d | Deci | |

c | Centi | |

m | Milli | |

µ | Micro | |

n | Nano | |

p | Pico | |

f | Femto | |

A | Atto |

__K____INEMATICS____:__

__Distance:__The length of the path between two It is a scalar quantity and is measured in the SI unit meter (m).__Displacement:__The shortest distance between two points in a linear direction from a fixed point of It is a vector quantity measured in the SI unit meter (m).__Speed:__The rate of change of distance. It has the formula and is a scalar quantity measured in the SI unit meter per second (ms-1).__Velocity:__The rate of change of displacement. It has the formula and is a vector quantity measured in the SI unit meter per second (ms-1).__Acceleration:__The rate of change of velocity. It has the formula and is a vector quantity measured in the SI unit meter per second square (ms-2).

__D____YNAMICS____:__

__Newton’s First Law:__A body continues in a state of rest or of motion at a constant speed in a straight line unless acted upon by an external__Newton’s Second Law:__The net force acting on a body of constant mass is directly proportional to the acceleration it gains if no external force is acting on the body. Fnet = ma.__Newton’s Third Law:__For every action, there is an equal but opposite__Mass:__The measure of a body’s resistance to changes in its dynamic It is a scalar quantity measured in the SI unit kilogram (kg).__Weight:__The force a body experiences due to the effect of gravitational acceleration on its mass towards the centre of the earth. It has the formula W = mg and is a vector quantity measured in the special SI unit Newton (N).__Linear Momentum:__The product of the mass of a body and its velocity. It is a quantity that describes the motion of a body. It has the formula p = mv and is a vector quantity measured in the SI unit Newton second(Ns).__Force:__The rate of change of momentum of the body upon which it It has the equation F = dp/dt and is a vector quantity measured in the SI unit Newton (N).__Principle of Conservation of Momentum:__The total momentum of interacting bodies in a closed system remains constant providing that there is no external force acting on__Elastic Collision:__A collision in which kinetic energy, linear momentum and the total amount of energy are all conserved.__Inelastic Collision:__A collision in which the bodies coalesce upon impact. The kinetic energy is not conserved but the total amount of energy and linear momentum is conserved.__Perfectly Elastic collision:__A collision in which the masses of the two bodies colliding are equal and the two bodies interchange their velocities after collision. Kinetic energy, linear momentum and the total amount of energy are all conserved.